CHM336: COMPLETE STUDY GUIDE ON INSTRUMENTAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS

By | October 1, 2019

CHM 336 INSTRUMENTAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS (COURSE OUTLINE)
  • Basic principles and applications: flame photometry, atomic absorption photometry, X-Ray method, fluorescence and phosphorescence, refractometry, polarimetry, colorimetry, voltametry and electrophoresis.

MATERIAL ONE : WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW

PART A

COMPLETE STUDY GUIDE ON INSTRUMENTAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS

-Differentiate between the principle of atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic mission spectrometry
-Describe the different types of burners used in atomic absorption spectrophotometer
-List the different types of interferences involved in atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis.
-Write briefly on the different types of electronic transitions.
-Convert the wavelength 5000Ă Înto frequency (Hz) and wave number (cm)
– Define the following terms:
. Refractometry
. Polarimetry
. micellar electrokinelic
.capillary chromatography? (3 marks)
.layer chronmatography? (2 marks)

– How does the working of starch gel electrophoresis compares with the working of a thin
-State the wavelength range of the following electromagnetic spectra regions:

.Ultraviolet
. Near ultraviolet
. Visible
. Infrared
– With the aid of a diagram, briefly describe the working of the capillary zone electrophoresis
– Explain the occurrence of the following current-voltage curves in voltammetry:
.S-Shaped Curve

. Peaked Curve

MATERIAL ONE : WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW

PART B

COMPLETE STUDY GUIDE ON INSTRUMENTAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS

– State Beer-Lambert’s law
-Describe the different causes of deviation from Beer’s law,
– A solution containing 4.48 ppm potassium permanganate (KMnO4) has a transmittance of 0.309 in a 1.00-cm cell at 520 nm. Calculate the absorbance and molar absorptivity of KMnO.
– A standard solution was prepared through appropriate dilutions to give the concentrations of iron shown below. The iron (Il) / 1,10-phenanthroline complex was then developed in 25.0 m. aliquots of these solutions, following which each Was diluted to S0.0 mL. The following absorbance (1.00-cm cells) were recorded at 510 nm:
Fe (11) Concentration in Original solution, ppm 4.00 10.0 16.0 24.032.0 40.0
Absorbance 0.160 0.390 0.630 0.950 1.260 1.580
– Sketch a calibration curve from these data.
– Determine the corresponding concentration for an absorbance of 1.480.
– Define the following terms:
– Refractometry
– Polarimetry
– Electrophoresis (iv)
-Polarography
– What is the advantage of using dropping mercury electrode (DME) in voltammetry?
– Brielly describe the principle of refractometry, and give four (4) applications of refractometry
– What is micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography?
-With the aid of a diagram, briefly describe the working of the capillary zone electrophoresis.
– A solution of 0.001M cadmium nitrate was placed in a test cell with a carbon microelectrode
A voltage difference was established between the working and auxillary electrode, which made the electrode to be negative relative to the Saturated Calomel Electrode (SCE)
-Write an electrode reaction for the above
– Calculate the minimum working potential for the above. Take E° = -0.403 V.
– Define voltammetry, and give four (4) applications of voltammetry
-What is the advantage of carbon electrode over platinum electrode?
-With the aid of appropriate curves, explain the occurrence of stepwise reduction in the follow
solutions at graphite electrode:
-A solution of copper (II) in ammonia
-A solution containing lead and cadmium ions
– What are explosives?
– State three (3) factors that can initiate explosive reactions.
-State the three (3) classes of nitro explosives
-(4d) Give names and structures of one compound in each of the classes listed in (4c) above.
-Use suitable chemical equations to illustrate formation of any two of the compounds listed
in (4d) above
– Define fermentation process.
-Using chemical equations only, show how ethanol can be obtained from sweet potato by fermentation process [assuming a molecular formula of (CoH,O10) for sweet potato
– Define pesticides
– (5b) Mention any two (2) types of pesticides.
-(5c )state two (2) classes of each of the pesticides listed in (5b) above based on their mode of action
– State the mode of action of each of the classes of mentioned in (5c) above on their pests
-Give name and structure of two (2) chemical compounds for each of the classes stated in (5c) above
-Use chemical equation to illustrate formation of one compound in each of the classes listed in (5e) above.

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– Discuss four (4) applications of polarimetry in the industry
-What is the importance of supporting electrolytes in voltammetry?
– ln a tabular form, differentiate S-shaped and peaked voltammetric curves
– Describe Briefly the existence of irreversible reduction and oxidation in Voltammetry
– With the aid of a diagram, explain how the voltammetric cell works.
-How does the working of starch get electrophoresis compares with the working of a thin layer chromatography?
– With the aid of a diagram, briefly describe the working of the capillary zone electrophoresis.
-In a coulometric analysis of ZnO solution, a constant current of 8 x 10-3A was used for half an hour to deposit zinc and oxygen at different electrodes, calculate the amount of electrical charge transported.
– Define the following:
.Atomization
. Interferences
. Refractory compounds.
– The diffraction of X-rays by successive layers of atoms can be described by Bragg equation, write out the equation and explain each term
– Describe the principle of fluorescence and the instrumentation required for fluorescence analysis.
– Differentiate between a single beam and a double beam spectrophotometer
– Draw the structure of a flame and briefly describe the flame characteristics.
– Aniline, C6H5NH2, were reacted with picric acid and gives a derivative with a molar absorptivity of 134 L cm-1g -1at 359 nm. What would be the absorbance of a 1.00 x 10 solution of reacted aniline in a 1.00-cm cell?
-Distinguish between fluorescence and phosphorescence in terms of ;
.the time for emission
.after excitation and
.the type of transition involved in emission.
– State the basic functions of any spectrometer and describe it diagrammatically

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-Define the following :

. molar absorptivity
. percent transmittance
. wave number
.ground state
-Calculate the frequency in hertz:
. an X-ray beam with a wavelength of 2.65A
. the line at 694.3 nm produced by a ruby laser
.an infrared absorption at 19.6 um
– Describe x-ray emission spectrometry with respect to principle, instrumentation and applications.
– Explain the mechanism of operation of a hollow cathode lamp

 

 

 

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